The cognitive disability seen in Down Syndrome may also be partly inflammatory. Both Alzheimer's disease and Down Syndrome has been associated with much higher brain levels of interleukin-1 than in non-affected people. Compared with age-matched controls, interleukin-1 was present in up to 30 times as many glial cells, which are a type of supporting cell that offer immune protection. Life Extension Foundation has even reported that DMSO was once found to improve neurological function in people with Down Syndrome, but this seemed to be only one, old study and would need further research. It looks like, despite the genetic cause, that there is hope for those with Down Syndrome to improve their cognitive skills, so one day - or perhaps now - they do not have to miss out on many of the things that non-affected people take for granted.